• 400PLANETA
  • TURKMENISTAN ENG
  • VPF
  • TURKMENISTAN RUS
  • 400ROMEBUSINESSSCHOOL
  • HR
  • LUISS
  • VPA
  • 400 NEW GOLF
The game is played by two teams of four riders. The primary focus is to get the ball into the opponents' goal. Play is conducted on a field measuring 300 yards (274.2 meters) long and 150-160 yards (meters 137,1-146,2) wide, surrounded by a low barrier. A gate with a width of 8 yards is placed on the center side of the field lines, height restrictions are not enforced. In winter the tournaments are held in either a closed or open "arena" measured at 91 by 45 meters (in the latter case the number of participants on each side is reduced to three). A white ball with a diameter of 8.9 cm, made of pressed bamboo or plastic, is used. The stick or mallet, which is used by the player, is a rattan cane 1.2-1.5 meters in length with a hammer on the end. The mallet can only be held in the players right hand. Depending on the direction, there are four specific types of strokes – direct (forehand) sending the ball forward or sideways, reverse (backhand) to pass the ball back to a partner, strike the ball from under the neck (neckshot) and tail strike from under it's rump (tailshot). After each goal the teams change ends so that no one has any advantages due to weather or playing conditions.
The team consists of two attackers, a midfielder and a defender. Intersecting the line of motion of another player is forbidden but a player is allowed to drive away the opponent or knock him off course by jumping nearby. The game consists of four rounds (chukka) lasting 7.5 minutes each with one five-minute and two three-minute intervals during which players change horses. To ensure compliance with the rules of the game two mounted umpires oversee the game and the head referee, who monitors the progress of the game from the sidelines. The main task of the arbitrators is to determine who owns the right of movement as well as the direction of travel of the ball. If rule violations occur then penalty shots are awarded. 
Indicator for skill levels are known as the handicap. The average team has a handicap of 15-18, a more advanced team will have a handicap level of 19 or more. This number is the sum of all the team member's handicaps. Handicap – a level of 4 can only be obtained after four years of diligent training and levels 2 to 10 are considered to be professional. To award a player a particular category the National Association of Polo follows guideline indicators such as basic knowledge of technique, riding skills, strategic understanding of the game and teamwork ability.